(`AKRUTI Tech Pack’)
Offered by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre
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TECH PACK TECHNOLOGY: Bio-gas plant based on biodegradable waste(Nisargruna)
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AKRUTI-PARIVARTAN

AKRUTI-CARD

AKRUTI-NIRMITEE

Three AKRUTIs have built up this plant. At AKRUTI-PARIVARTAN electricity generation was demonstrated by connecting 10kW, biogas generator to Nisargaruna Biogas plant, whereas at AKRUTI-NIRMITEE, during the inauguration function, public address system, lighting and electrical equipments were run on the electricity generated through NISARGRUNA plant.

Waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced by all nations across the world. One of the laws probably most important for the conservation of nature is law of conservation. According to this law waste is not a problem but a part of this cycle. 
The daily per capita solid waste generated in our country ranges from about 300 g to 500 g. If we carefully analyse this waste we will realise that majority of it is biodegradable. Waste like glass, metals and paper would be recyclable. The biodegradable waste if handled properly would maintain the natural balance of essential elements and thereby promote more harvests from nature.

Disposal of biodegradable waste can be achieved by several means like incineration, landfills, dumping in the sea or other water bodies, composting etc. These methods have their own hazards. Incineration can lead to respiratory illnesses. Moreover, it may lead to disruption of biogeochemical cycles of several elements and will have long term effects on biosphere. Vermiculture has been used in recent past in urban area, however, it has limitations of space. One of the economic ways would be to raise community biogas plants based on biodegradable waste.

 Advantages

Bio Gas Plant would serve many purposes such as

  • Environment friendly disposal of waste, which is need of hour considering mass pollution everywhere.
  • Generation of fairly good amount of fuel gas, which will definitely support the dwindling energy resources.
  • Generation of high quality manure, which would be weedless and an excellent soil conditioner. This is very important for replenishing fast decreasing resources of productive soils. It must be noted that need for replenishing the soil with high quality organic manure has been identified in tenth five-year plan.
  • It would reduce the menace of street dogs and other nuisance animals.
  • Biogas is a colourless, odourless and inflammable gas. The gas generated in this plant can also be used as a source of natural gas.  The composition of biogas is:

Methane (CH4)              : 70-75%
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)     : 10-15%
Water vapours               : 5-10%

There is a definite need for developing means to handle enormous amounts of biodegradable waste that is generated daily. The waste organic matter that is generated in the kitchens can be processed using modified biogas plant.

Applications
The wastes can be processed by Bio gas plant are biodegradable kitchen waste, paper waste, green grass, leaf litter, animal remains in abattoirs, hospital waste, green plant waste, gobar, crop residues, sugarcane, baggase, water hyacinth.
The Bio gas plants are useful for Municipal Corporations, Hospitals, Hotels, Housing Societies, Govt. Establishments, Abattoirs, Nagar Palika, Grampanchayat, Farmers.

Operation

The material to be processed is brought to the plant site every day. Two workers are needed for the operation of the plant. The important tasks to be done are:

  • Sorting of waste materials
  • Processing the waste in mixer
  • Routine operations for predigester and digester tanks
  • Manure pits

Infrastructure Required
The following infrastructures required for set-up a 1 tonne/day capacity Bio gas plant:

  • Space            : ~ 300 m2
  • Manpower       : Two unskilled persons for operation
  • Power supply   : 3 phase AC
  • Water Supply   : 1.2 kL for one tonne plant

Current Status

Presently 40 plants are operating based on this technology with a capacity 1 Ton/day to 5 Ton/day and around 40 plants are in construction.

 

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